70.三角钢琴、电钢琴和立式钢琴

(70) Grand, Electronic, Upright Pianos

Grand, Upright, or Electronic? Grands become necessary at advanced levels (four to six years of lessons). Because advanced material cannot be played on lower quality pianos, the students can't even practice them. There are great pianists who became technically advanced practicing mostly on uprights, so it is possible, but difficult. There is no evidence that you need a grand for initial technical development, although a few piano teachers will insist that any serious student must practice on a grand. An argument can be made in favor of uprights, at least for beginners, because they are more difficult to play and may be better for early finger development. They may be superior even for intermediate students because uprights are less forgiving and require greater technical skill to play. For students up to intermediate level, any differences among uprights and grands are inconsequential compared to other factors such as student motivation, quality of teachers, practice methods, and proper piano maintenance. 三角钢琴、立式钢琴或电钢琴?三角钢琴在高级水平(四到六年的课程)成为必要。由于高级材料无法在质量较低的钢琴上演奏,因此学生甚至无法练习它们。有一些伟大的钢琴家在技术上已经成为高级钢琴演奏家,他们大多在立式钢琴上练习,因此这是可能的,但是很困难。尽管有一些钢琴老师会坚持认为任何认真的学生都必须在三角钢琴上练习,但是没有证据表明您需要三角钢琴来进行最初的技术培养。至少对于初学者来说,可以主张立式,因为立式较难演奏且对于早期手指发育可能更好。即使对于中级学生,它们也可能会更好,因为立式的宽容度较小,并且需要更高的技术技能。对于中级及以下水平的学生,与其他因素(例如学生的积极性、教师的素质、练习方法和适当的钢琴保养)相比,立柱和三角钢琴之间的任何差异都是无关紧要的。

The most important factor for acoustics (grands and uprights, as distinguished from electronic [digital] pianos) is maintenance. Acoustics require maintenance at least once a year. Too many acoustics are under-maintained because their owners do not know what maintenance is needed, which makes it too difficult to practice pianissimo and musicality, acquire technique, or learn absolute pitch. Digitals do not require maintenance. 声学钢琴最重要的因素(三角钢琴和立式钢琴,不同于电子[数字]钢琴)是维护。 声学钢琴每年至少需要维护一次。 由于所有者不知道需要进行哪些维护,因此维护不足的声学钢琴太多了,这使得练习pianissimo和音乐性、掌握技巧或学习绝对音高变得非常困难。 数字不需要维护。

Electronic Pianos: Today's (2015) best electronic pianos are still inferior to good grands for sound and tone control, but are improving rapidly. The best electronics are now competitive with grands for technical development. Most inexpensive speakers can not compete with the soundboard of a grand and future electronics will surely come with better speaker systems. Uprights do not provide sufficient advantages for technical development to warrant their use over quality electronics that are readily available, comparatively inexpensive, and require no maintenance. Today's electronics will last about ten years under constant, daily use, at which point the actions tend to become sticky and noisy. Another reason for upgrading to a new electronic every five to seven years is that the newer models are cheaper and better. Because the quality of the action is the main problem with electronics, the best way to test one is by playing fast trills. 电钢琴:今天(2015年)最好的电钢琴在声音和音调控制方面仍不如优秀钢琴,但发展迅速。 最好的电子产品现在在技术开发方面与三角钢琴竞争。 大多数便宜的扬声器无法与三角钢琴的音板竞争,未来的电子产品肯定会配备更好的扬声器系统。 立式钢琴不能为技术培养提供足够的优势,也不能保证用立式钢琴要好于用容易获得、相对便宜且无需维护的优质电子产品。 今天的电子产品在每天持续使用的情况下能用约十年,到那时,电钢琴的反应往往会变得不好用、有噪音。 每五到七年升级一次新电子产品的另一个原因是,新型号更便宜、 更好。 由于反应是电子设备的主要问题,因此测试动作的最佳方法是快速弹奏。

Because electronic pianos have some unique advantages, most serious pianists now own both an acoustic and an electronic. Here are some reasons: 因为电钢琴具有一些独特的优势,所以现在大多数严肃的钢琴家同时拥有声学钢琴和电钢琴。 原因如下:

(i) For less than the price of an average new upright, you can buy a new electronic piano with all the features you need: weighted 88 keys, 128 polyphony, headphone, volume control, touch control, organ, string, voice, harpsichord, metronome, recording and midi/analog out, transposition, different tunings (temperaments), and canned accompaniments. Many electronics provide even more, but these are common features you can expect. The argument that a acoustic piano is a better investment than an electronic is false because, except for collectors' items, no acoustic is a good investment, especially when the initial cost and depreciation are so high for new instruments. The maintenance costs of acoustics are substantial, since they require tuning, voicing, and regulation at least once a year, plus periodic repairs. (i)您可以以低于普通新立式钢琴价格的价格购买具有所需功能的新型电钢琴:88键重键、128多声部、耳机、音量控制、触摸控制、管风琴、弦乐、人声、大键琴 、节拍器,录音和Midi /模拟输出、移调、不同的调音(音律)和罐装伴奏。 许多电子设备提供的功能更多,但是您可以期望这些是常见的功能。 关于声学钢琴比电钢琴更好的投资的说法是错误的,因为除了收藏家的物品外,没有声学是很好的投资,特别是当新乐器的初始成本和折旧很高时。 音响的维护成本非常可观,因为它们每年至少需要进行一次调谐,发声和调节,并且需要定期维修。

(ii) The electronics are always in tune. Very young children exposed sufficiently to perfectly tuned pianos acquire absolute pitch automatically, although most parents never discover this because the children are never tested and, if it is not discovered and maintained, it is lost during the teen years. The acoustic piano begins to go out of tune the minute the tuner leaves your house, and some notes will be out of tune most of the time. Because too many acoustic pianos are inadequately maintained, the fact that the electronics are always in tune is a big advantage. (ii)电子设备始终处于调音状态。 足够暴露于完美调校的钢琴的很小的孩子会自动获得绝对音高,尽管大多数父母从来没有发现这一点,因为从未对孩子进行过测试,如果不对其进行发现和维护,它会在青少年时期丢失。 调音器离开您家的那一刻,原声钢琴开始失调,并且大多数时候某些音符会失调。 由于太多的原声钢琴保养不充分,电子设备始终处于调音状态是一个很大的优势。

(iii) You can use headphones or adjust the volume so that you can practice without disturbing others. The ability to turn down the volume is also useful for reducing ear damage when practicing loud passages: an important factor for anyone at any age. Although younger pianists can tolerate loud sounds, by the time they start hearing tinnitus and losing their hearing at age 50, it is too late — hearing loss will quickly accelerate thereafter with age. Protecting the ears starting as early as age 20 is the best way to avoid such a fate. (iii)您可以使用耳机或调节音量,以便练习时不会打扰他人。 调低音量的功能还有助于减少大声练习时对耳朵的伤害:这对任何年龄的人而言都是重要的因素。 尽管年轻的钢琴演奏者可以忍受大声的声音,但是当他们开始听到耳鸣并在50岁时失去听力时,已经为时已晚-此后听力会随着年龄的增长而迅速加速。 早在20岁就开始保护耳朵是避免这种命运的最好方法。

If you are an advanced player, even an electronic will create considerable "playing noise" (with the volume turned off) that can be quite loud to anyone nearby and these vibrations can transmit through the floor to rooms under the piano. Therefore it is a mistake to think that the sound from an electronic (or an acoustic with "silent" feature) can be completely turned off. 如果您是高级演奏家,那么即使是电子产品也将产生相当大的“演奏噪音”(关闭音量),对附近的人来说可能会很大声,并且这些振动会通过地板传播到钢琴下面的房间。 因此,认为可以完全关闭来自电子设备的声音(或具有“静音”功能的声音)是错误的。

(iv) Electronics are more portable than acoustics. Although there are light keyboards with similar features, it is best for piano practice to use the heavier electronics so that they do not shift while playing loud, fast music. Even these heavier electronics can be easily carried by two persons, and will fit in many cars. (iv)电子产品比声学产品更具便携性。 尽管有些轻型键盘具有类似的功能,但钢琴练习最好使用较重的电子设备,以便在播放响亮而快速的音乐时不会移位。 即使是这些较重的电子设备,也很容易由两个人携带,并且可以装在许多汽车中。

(v) Variable touch weight is more important than many people realize. However, you have to know what "touch weight" means before you can use it to advantage. In general, the touch weight of electronics is a little lighter than that of acoustics. This lighter weight was chosen for two reasons: to make it easier for keyboard players to play these electronics (keyboards are even lighter), and to make them easier to play compared to the acoustics. The disadvantage of the lighter weight is that you may find it more difficult to play a acoustic after learning on an electronic. The touch weight of acoustics is heavier because it is expensive to make acoustics lighter. One advantage of heavier weight is that you can feel the keys of a acoustic while playing, without inadvertently depressing some wrong notes. However, this can also lead to careless playing with some inadvertent finger motions because you can accidentally hit a key of a acoustic without making any sound. You can practice getting rid of these uncontrolled motions by practicing on an electronic and choosing a light touch weight so that any inadvertent strike will produce a sound. Many who practice only on acoustics don't even know that they have such uncontrolled motions until they try to play on an electronic, and find out that they are hitting a lot of extra keys (and buttons!). The light touch is also useful for acquiring difficult technique quickly. Then, if you need to play on a acoustic later on, you can practice with increased weight on the electronic after you acquire the technique. This two-step process is usually faster than trying to acquire technique at a heavy key setting. v)可变的触摸重量比许多人意识到的更为重要。但是,您必须先了解“触摸重量”的含义,然后才能使用它。通常,电子设备的触摸重量比声学效果轻。选择这种较轻的重量有两个原因:使键盘演奏者更容易演奏这些电子设备(键盘甚至更轻),并且与声学相比,使它们更容易演奏。重量较轻的缺点是,您可能会发现在电子产品上学习后弹奏声音更加困难。音响的触觉重量较重,因为使音响更轻便昂贵。较重的优点之一是您可以在演奏时感觉到原声的音调,而不会无意间压下一些错误的音符。但是,这也可能导致粗心地播放手指的一些意外动作,因为您可能会意外地敲击音响的琴键而没有发出任何声音。您可以通过在电子设备上进行练习并选择轻巧的砝码来练习摆脱这些不受控制的动作,以便任何无意中的敲击都会产生声音。许多只用声学练习的人,甚至在尝试使用电子设备弹奏并发现自己要敲很多额外的按键(和按钮!)之前,甚至都不知道自己的动作不受控制。轻触也有助于快速掌握困难的技术。然后,如果以后需要弹奏声音,则在掌握该技术后,可以增加电子设备的重量以进行练习。通常,此两步过程比尝试在沉重的键设置下获取技术要快。

(vi) Recording piano music is one of the most difficult things to do using conventional recording equipment. With an electronic piano, you can do it with the push of a button. You can easily build up an album of all the pieces you learned. Everyone should cultivate a habit of recording every finished piece from the very beginning of lessons. Too many students never record their performances, which is the main reason for excessive nervousness and difficulties during performances. (vi)使用传统的录音设备录制钢琴音乐是最困难的事情之一。 使用电钢琴,您只需按一下按钮即可。 您可以轻松地将学习到的所有曲目制作成专辑。 每个人都应该养成从上课开始就记录下每个完成的作品的习惯。 太多的学生从来没有记录自己的表演,这是表演过程中过度紧张和困难的主要原因。

(vii) Most pianists who follow good practice methods and become proficient when young will end up composing their own music. Electronic pianos are helpful for recording your compositions so that you don't need to write them down, and for playing them in different instruments, as appropriate for each composition. With some additional software or hardware, you can even compose entire symphonies and play every instrument yourself. There is even software that will transcribe (though imperfectly) your music onto sheet music. On the other hand, there is nothing like a quality grand to help you compose – the sound from a great piano somehow inspires the composing process. Therefore, if you are a professional composer, most electronics will be inadequate for inspiration although they will suffice for mundane composition chores. (vii)大多数遵循良好练习方法并在年轻时精通的钢琴家最终都会自己创作音乐。 电钢琴有助于录制您的乐曲,因此您无需将它们写下来,也可以使用适合每种乐曲的不同乐器来演奏。 借助一些附加的软件或硬件,您甚至可以组成整个交响曲并自己演奏每种乐器。 甚至有软件可以将您的音乐转录(尽管不完美)到乐谱上。 另一方面,没有什么可以像优质的三角钢琴那样来帮助您创作的–出色的钢琴声音在某种程度上激发了创作过程。 因此,如果您是专业的作曲家,尽管大多数电子产品足以应付平凡的作曲工作,但它们将不足以激发灵感。

(viii) If you can acquire technique rapidly, there is nothing stopping you from broadening your horizon beyond classical music and playing popular music, jazz, blues, etc. You will appeal to a wider audience if you can mix music genres and will have more fun. The electronic piano can help by providing the accompaniments, drums, etc., for those types of music. Electronics are more easily transportable for gigs that can become a significant activity depending on the genre. (viii)如果您能够快速掌握技术,那么没有什么能阻止您将您的视线扩大到古典音乐之外,并且不会播放流行音乐,爵士乐,布鲁斯音乐等。如果您可以混合各种音乐类型,并且拥有更多的听众,将会吸引更多的听众。 好玩 电钢琴可以通过为这些类型的音乐提供伴奏,鼓等来帮助您。 电子设备更易于随身携带,因为根据类型的不同,演出可能会成为一项重要活动。

(ix) The above is only the beginning; electronics will improve in leaps and bounds every year. One interesting development is piano modeling (Pianoteq), instead of the sampling used by most manufacturers. Good sampling requires tremendous amounts of memory and processing power, which can slow down the piano response. It is also limited by the original piano used for the sampling. Modeling is more versatile, requires much less memory and software, and enables features such as partial soft pedal, controlling the hammer shank flex or letting you play Chopin's Pleyel. (ix) 以上仅仅是开始; 电子产品每年都会突飞猛进。 一种有趣的发展是钢琴建模(Pianoteq),而不是大多数制造商使用的采样。 好的采样需要大量的内存和处理能力,这可能会减慢钢琴的响应速度。 它也受用于采样的原始钢琴的限制。 建模更加通用,需要更少的内存和软件,并具有诸如偏软踏板,控制弦槌弯曲或让您演奏肖邦的Pleyel之类的功能。

(x) We should all move towards WT (Well Temperaments) and away from ET [Equal Temperament that is universally accepted today, see (77) Circle of Fifths, Temperaments]. Once you decide to use WT, you will need several of them. Learning to discern and bring out key color is a most valuable skill as an advanced musician. ET is the worst tuning for this because key color absolutely disappears. With electronic pianos, you can get most of the useful temperaments by flicking a switch. (x)我们都应该朝着WT(Well Temperaments)发展,而远离ET [Equal Temperament,请参阅(77)Circle of Fifths, Temperament]。 一旦决定使用WT,您将需要其中几个。 作为高级音乐家,学会辨别和展现关键色彩是一项最有价值的技能。 ET是最糟糕的调整,因为键色完全消失了。 使用电钢琴,轻按一下开关即可获得大多数有用的音律。

The touch weight of a piano is not a simple matter of adding or subtracting lead weights to the keys to change the force required to depress them. The touch weight is a combination of the down weight, the inertia of the keys and hammers, and the force required to produce a certain volume of sound. The down weight is the maximum weight that the key will support before it will start to move down. This is the weight that is adjusted using lead weights, etc. The down weight of all pianos, including the "weighted key" electronics, is standardized at about 50 grams and varies little from piano to piano regardless of touch weight, although it is slightly lighter (10-20%) in weighted key electronics than most acoustics. The non-weighted keyboards are much lighter. 钢琴的重锤并不是简单地在琴键上增加或减去铅锤重量来改变按下琴键所需的力的问题。 轻巧的重量是轻巧的重量,按键和琴槌的惯性以及产生一定音量的声音所需的力的组合。 向下重量是钥匙在开始向下移动之前将支撑的最大重量。 这是使用铅制砝码等进行调整的重量。所有钢琴的重量(包括“加权键”电子设备)标准化后的重量约为50克,无论轻重,钢琴之间的重量差异不大,尽管重量略有不同。 加权的关键电子产品比大多数音响设备轻(10-20%)。 非加权键盘轻巧得多。

When playing a piano, this 50 gram weight is a small fraction of the force required to play -- most of the force is used to produce the sound. In acoustic pianos, this is the force needed to impart velocity to the hammer. In electronics, it is the electronic reaction to the key motion and a fixed mechanical resistance. In both cases, you also have to overcome the inertia of the mechanism in addition to supplying the force for producing the sound. Electronics have a smaller inertial component because they have only the inertia of the keys whereas the acoustics have the additional inertia of the hammer mechanism; this makes the acoustics less sensitive to inadvertent hitting of the keys. Therefore, you will feel the most difference between acoustics and electronics when playing fast or staccato and little difference when playing slow legato. 弹钢琴时,这50克的重量只是弹奏所需力的一小部分-大多数力用于产生声音。 在原声钢琴中,这是将速度赋予琴槌所需的力。 在电子学中,它是对按键运动和固定机械阻力的电子反应。 在这两种情况下,除了提供产生声音的力之外,还必须克服机构的惯性。 电子产品具有较小的惯性分量,因为它们仅具有按键的惯性,而声学具有锤击机构的附加惯性; 这使得声音对按键的意外敲击不太敏感。 因此,快速演奏或断奏时您会感觉到声学和电子学之间的最大不同,而慢速演奏时您会感觉到几乎没有什么不同。

The touch weight is the effort required to produce a certain volume of sound and has little to do with down weight. For acoustics, touch weight is determined mostly by hammer mass and voicing (hardness of the hammer). There is only a narrow range of hammer masses that is ideal because you want heavier hammers for larger sound but lighter ones for faster action. The touch weight can be adjusted by the piano technician by hammer voicing, rather than by changing the down weight. For electronic pianos, touch weight is controlled in the software by switching to the sound of a softer hammer for heavier touch weight and vice versa, which simulates a acoustic grand; there is no mechanical change to the down weight of the keys or other inertial components. Thus if you switch to the heaviest key weight, you might feel that the sound is somewhat muffled and if you switch to the lightest weight, the sound might be more brilliant. In electronic pianos, it is easier to change the touch weight without adversely affecting the sound because there is no hammer to adjust. The maximum dynamic range of most electronic pianos is limited by the speakers, so that the dynamic range of acoustic grands is larger. 触摸重量是产生一定音量的声音所需的努力,与减轻重量无关。对于声学而言,触摸权重主要取决于锤的质量和发声(锤的硬度)。理想的锤子质量范围很窄,因为您需要较重的锤子以产生较大的声音,而要使用较轻的锤子以加快动作。钢琴技师可以通过锤子发声来调整力度,而无需改变轻重。对于电钢琴,通过切换到较轻的锤子的声音来控制重锤重量,反之亦然,这在软件中控制了重锤重量,反之亦然,它模拟了声学效果。按键或其他惯性组件的重量没有机械变化。因此,如果您切换到最重的键重,则可能会感觉声音有些沉闷,如果切换到最轻的键重,则声音可能会更加明亮。在电钢琴中,因为没有锤子可以调节,所以在不影响声音的情况下更容易改变触键重量。大多数电钢琴的最大动态范围受扬声器的限制,因此声学三角架的动态范围更大。

You can demonstrate this subjective judgment of key weight by turning the volume down using the electronic piano and trying to achieve the same loudness. We conclude that there are small differences in the touch weight between grands and electronics, with the grands tending to be heavier, but those differences are not sufficient to cause major problems when switching from one to the other. The fear that practicing on an electronic will make it difficult to play on a grand is unfounded; in fact, it is more likely to be easier, although it may take a few minutes of playing on the grand to get used to it. One exception is acoustics that are out of regulation, such as compacted hammers — they are much harder to play than electronics. Unfortunately, too many acoustics are under-maintained, making them difficult to play. Many teachers think that practicing on digitals doesn't work because the students can't play the same pieces on acoustics, but the fault lies in the acoustics, not the digitals, because those acoustics were not properly maintained. Therefore, students who learn on digitals should practice on acoustics as often as possible, because there are differences, and it takes some time to learn how to play the acoustics. 您可以通过使用电钢琴调低音量并尝试达到相同的响度来证明对键重的主观判断。我们得出的结论是,电子琴和电子琴之间的触摸权重差异很小,电子琴的重量往往会更大,但这些差异不足以在从一个切换到另一个时引起重大问题。担心在电子设备上练习会很难在三角钢琴上演奏,这种担心是没有根据的;实际上,它可能更容易一些,尽管可能需要花费几分钟的时间在宏伟的平台上玩才能习惯。一个例外是声音不合规定的声音,例如压紧的锤子-比电子产品难演奏得多。不幸的是,太多的声学设备维护不足,使其难以播放。许多老师认为在数字上练习是行不通的,因为学生无法在声学上演奏相同的乐曲,但是故障出在声学上,而不是数字上,因为这些声学没有得到适当的维护。因此,学习数字学的学生应该尽可能多地练习声学,因为两者之间存在差异,并且需要花费一些时间来学习如何演奏声学。

Electronics provide the sound via software so that reproducing the touch weight of grands exactly is difficult. Yamaha "solved" this problem by inserting an actual grand mechanism into their electronic (AvantGrand model), which more than doubles the cost of the electronic, but retains all the advantages of the electronic. Because the hammers do not produce the sound by hitting strings, the feel is not exactly the same. But the eventual question we should consider is "Should an electronic emulate an acoustic exactly, or should the electronic eventually have its own properties that can be superior to the best acoustics?" Right now, the exact emulation is important because concert pianists must still perform on acoustics and nobody can predict if electronics will ever replace good acoustics. That time may eventually come because (1) the electronics are improving so rapidly, (2) a vast majority of pianists will start learning on electronics, and (3) with better speakers, etc., there will soon come a time when a pianist can overpower any orchestra when playing a concerto, whereas today, even the best acoustic in the world cannot overpower a large orchestra. For some "pop" concerts, digitals are already replacing acoustics. 电子设备通过软件提供声音,因此很难准确再现三角钢琴的触摸重量。雅马哈通过在电子产品(AvantGrand模型)中插入实际的大机构来“解决”该问题,这使电子产品的成本增加了一倍以上,但保留了电子产品的所有优势。由于锤子不会通过敲打弦线产生声音,因此感觉并不完全相同。但是,我们最终应该考虑的问题是“电子设备应该精确地模拟声学效果,还是电子设备最终应具有可以优于最佳声学效果的自身特性?”目前,准确的模拟非常重要,因为音乐会钢琴演奏家仍必须在声学方面表现出色,而且没人能预测电子产品是否会取代良好的声学效果。那个时候最终可能是因为(1)电子技术发展如此之快;(2)绝大多数钢琴家将开始学习电子技术;(3)扬声器更好的人,等等。演奏协奏曲时可以击败任何一支乐团,而今天,即使世界上最好的音响也无法击败大型交响乐团。对于某些“流行”音乐会,数字已经取代了声学。

Half size and three-quarter size electronic pianos should be cost effective to produce. They can be sold or rented to piano teachers and schools that rent them to the youngest students for extra income, given financial terms that guarantees positive cash flow for everybody. Today, the availability of pianos for small, young, fingers is a major limiting factor. Small pianos will benefit instrument makers financially because they will increase the number of good pianists that will need full sized pianos. 半尺寸和四分之三尺寸的电钢琴的生产应具有成本效益。 可以将它们出售或出租给钢琴老师和学校,然后再将其出租给最年轻的学生以赚取额外收入,前提是要保证每个人都能获得正现金流量。 如今,年轻人的小手指钢琴的使用已成为主要限制因素。 小型钢琴将在经济上使乐器制造商受益,因为它们将增加需要全尺寸钢琴的优秀钢琴家的数量。

Some pianists have asked their tuners to increase the down weight (with the hope of increasing finger strength), but this throws the piano out of regulation and is bad for technical development (velocity, musicality). 一些钢琴家要求他们的调谐器增加重量(希望增加手指的力量),但是这会使钢琴失控,不利于技术发展(速度,音乐性)。

If you are a beginner purchasing your first piano, an electronic is the obvious choice, unless you can afford a quality grand and have space for it. Even in that case, you will probably want an electronic piano also because the cost of the electronic will be negligible compared to the grand, and it gives you so many features that the grand does not have. 如果您是初学者,请购买第一架钢琴,除非您能负担得起高品质的钢琴并且有足够的空间,否则电子是一个不错的选择。 即使在那种情况下,您也可能会想要一架电钢琴,因为与三角钢琴相比,电钢琴的成本可以忽略不计,并且它为您提供了三角钢琴所没有的许多功能。

Uprights: Acoustic uprights are less expensive than grands, they take up less space, and for small rooms, large grands may produce too much sound so that they cannot be played full blast with the lid open without hurting or even damaging the ears, not only of the pianist, but also everyone in the house. The electronics have these same advantages plus many more. Owners of uprights too often neglect hammer voicing entirely because this neglect results in more sound. Since uprights are essentially closed instruments, the neglect of voicing is less noticeable. Uprights also tend to be less expensive to maintain, because expensive repairs are not worthwhile and are not performed. Of course, there are quality uprights that are competitive with grands in feel and sound quality, but they cost as much as grands. 立柱:声学立柱比大型立柱便宜,占用的空间也小,对于小房间,大型立柱可能会产生过多的声音,因此在盖子打开时不能完全爆炸而不会伤害甚至损坏耳朵,不仅 钢琴家,但屋子里的每个人。 电子产品具有这些相同的优点以及更多其他优点。 立柱所有者经常会完全忽略锤音,因为这种忽略会导致声音变大。 由于立柱本质上是封闭的器械,因此忽略发声的情况不太明显。 立柱的维护成本也往往较低,因为昂贵的维修不值得且无法执行。 当然,有些质量立柱在手感和声音质量上可与大品牌媲美,但价格却与大品牌一样高。

Among uprights, spinets are the smallest and generally the least expensive pianos; most do not produce satisfactory sound, even for students. The small height of spinets limits the string length, which is the main limitation on sound output. In theory, the treble should produce satisfactory sound (there is no limitation on string length even for spinets), but most spinets are weak in the treble because of poor quality of construction; therefore, be sure to test the highest and lowest notes if you are evaluating a spinet – simply compare it with a larger piano. Console or larger uprights can be good student pianos. Old uprights with poor sound are generally not salvageable, no matter what their size. Do not place an upright too close to a wall; this will deaden the sound. To position the piano, place it very close to the wall; then play middle C while pulling the piano away from the wall, until you get maximum sound. 在立式中,棘轮是体积最小,通常最便宜的钢琴。即使对于学生,大多数也不会产生令人满意的声音。棘轮的小高度限制了琴弦的长度,这是声音输出的主要限制。从理论上讲,高音应该发出令人满意的声音(即使对于小节,弦长也没有限制),但是由于结构质量差,大多数小节的高音都较弱。因此,如果您要评估一个小号琴,请务必测试最高音符和最低音符–只需将其与更大的钢琴进行比较即可。控制台或较大的立柱可能是好的学生钢琴。声音不佳的旧立柱,无论尺寸大小,通常都无法挽救。请勿将立柱放置在墙壁附近。这会使声音减弱。要放置钢琴,请将其非常靠近墙壁放置。然后弹奏中音C,同时将钢琴从墙壁上拉开,直到获得最大声音为止。

Uprights have been "obsoleted" by the electronics and there is no reason to buy a new upright, although some piano teachers and most piano stores might suggest otherwise. Many piano teachers have not had enough experience with electronics and are more accustomed to the feel and sound of the uprights and tend to recommend acoustics as "real pianos", which is a mistake. The difficulty of purchasing a quality upright, the problems encountered with having it properly "prepped" before and after delivery (see following section), and the need to keep it regulated and in tune, are not worth the slight difference in touch or tone, if any. 电子设备已经使立柱“淘汰”了,没有理由购买新的立柱,尽管一些钢琴老师和大多数钢琴商店可能会建议不这样做。许多钢琴老师没有足够的电子学经验,更习惯于立式钢琴的感觉和声音,并倾向于将声学推荐为“真正的钢琴”,这是一个错误。购买优质立柱的困难,在交付之前和之后正确“准备”质量方面遇到的问题(请参阅以下部分),以及保持其规范和协调一致的需要,这些都不值得在触感或音调上略有不同,如果有的话。

The rule concerning uprights is simple: if you already have one that is playable, there is no reason to get rid of it until you buy an electronic or a grand; if you don't have a piano, there is no compelling reason to buy an upright. Students above intermediate level will want a grand piano because the most technically difficult music is harder to play on most uprights and inexpensive electronic keyboards. Because of decreasing demand and profits,manufacture of uprights may cease in the near future. 有关立柱的规则很简单:如果您已经有一个可以玩的立柱,那么在您购买电子产品或大宗商品之前,没有理由要放弃它;如果您没有钢琴,则没有令人信服的理由购买立式钢琴。中级以上的学生会想要一架三角钢琴,因为技术难度最高的音乐很难在大多数立柱和价格便宜的电子键盘上播放。由于需求和利润减少,立柱的制造可能会在不久的将来停止。

Grands: The advantages of most grands are: greater dynamic range (loud/soft), open structure allowing the sound to escape freely (which provides more control and expression), richer sound, faster repetition, smoother action (use of gravity instead of springs), a "true" soft pedal [(40) Soft Pedal: Hammer Voicing], better sound (easier to tune accurately) and more impressive appearance. An exception is the class of "baby" grands (less than about 5'-2") whose sound output is usually unsatisfactory and are not true grands. A few companies are beginning to produce baby grands with acceptable sound, so for these very new pianos, don't write them off without testing them. Larger grands can be classified into two main classes, the "student grands" (those below about 6 to 7 ft), and the concert grands. The concert grands provide more dynamic range, better sound quality, superior action, and more tonal control. Grands:大多数Grands的优点是:更大的动态范围(大声/柔和),开放的结构允许声音自由散逸(提供更多的控制和表达),更丰富的声音,更快的重复,更流畅的动作(使用重力代替弹簧) ),“真正的”软踏板[(40)软踏板:锤子发声],更好的声音(更容易精确调整)和更令人印象深刻的外观。一个例外是“婴儿”三角钢琴(小于约5'-2“),其声音输出通常不能令人满意,并且不是真正的三角钢琴。一些公司开始生产具有可接受声音的婴儿三角钢琴,因此对于这些非常新的钢琴,不要未经测试就注销它们。较大的三角钢琴可以分为两个主要类别:“学生三角钢琴”(大约在6到7英尺以下)和音乐会三角钢琴。更好的音质,出色的动作和更多的音调控制。

As an example of this "quality versus size" issue, consider the Steinway pianos. The baby model, model S (5'-2"), is essentially a decorative furniture and very few produce sufficient quality sound to be considered playable and are inferior to many uprights. The next larger size group consists of models M, O, and L (5'-7" to 5'-11"). These models are similar and are excellent student pianos. However, advanced pianists would not consider them to be true grands because of poorer sustain, too much percussive sound, and notes with too much harmonic content. The next model, A (6'-2"), is borderline, and B(6'-10"), C(7'-5"), and D(9') are true grands. One problem with evaluating Steinways is that the quality within each model is variable. On average, there is a significant improvement in sound quality and output with each increase in size. 作为此“质量与尺寸”问题的一个示例,请考虑施坦威钢琴。婴儿模型S(5'-2“)本质上是一种装饰家具,很少能产生足够高的声音以至于不能被认为是可玩的,并且不如许多立柱。 L(5'-7“至5'-11”)。这些型号相似,是出色的学生钢琴。但是,高级钢琴演奏家不会将它们视为真正的三角钢琴,因为它们的延音效果较差,打击乐声音太大,并且音符带有下一个模型A(6'-2“)为边界线,而B(6'-10”),C(7'-5“)和D(9')为正整数。评估Steinways的一个问题是每个模型中的质量都是可变的。平均而言,每增加一个尺寸,声音质量和输出都会得到显着改善。

Grands require hammer voicing more frequently than uprights; otherwise, they become too "brilliant" or "harsh", at which point most owners will end up playing the grand with the lid closed. With compacted hammers, it is impossible to play, and therefore practice, PP. Many homeowners ignore voicing entirely because they know nothing about it. The result is that such grands produce too much and too harsh sound, and are therefore played with the lid down. There is nothing technically wrong with playing a grand with the lid closed; however, some purists will express dismay at such practice, and you are certainly throwing away something wonderful for which you made a significant investment. Performances at recitals almost always require the lid to be open, resulting in a more sensitive piano. Therefore you should always practice with the lid open before a performance even if you normally practice with it closed. In a large room, or in a recital hall, there is much less multiple reflection of the sound so that you do not hear the deafening roar that can result in a small room. 三角钢琴要求锤子发声要比立柱发声更频繁。否则,它们将变得过于“光彩”或“苛刻”,这时大多数车主最终都会在关闭盖子的情况下进行盛大比赛。使用紧凑的锤子,无法演奏PP,因此无法练习。许多房主完全不知道发声,因为他们对此一无所知。结果是这样的隆重产生太多和太刺耳的声音,并因此在盖子向下的情况下演奏。在关闭盖子的情况下演奏三角钢琴在技术上没有错。但是,一些纯粹主义者会对这种做法表示失望,并且您肯定会丢掉一些您为之投入大量资金的奇妙事物。演奏会上的演奏几乎总是需要将盖子打开,从而使钢琴更灵敏。因此,即使您通常在关闭盖子的情况下练习,也应该在演奏前始终将盖子打开进行练习。在大房间或演奏厅中,声音的多重反射要少得多,因此您不会听到可能导致小房间的震耳欲聋的轰鸣声。

A concert hall will absorb the sound from the piano so that, if you are accustomed to practicing in a small room, you will have difficulty hearing your own playing. If the music stand is raised, it will intercept the sound and you may not be able to hear your own playing at all! 音乐厅将吸收钢琴的声音,因此,如果您习惯在小房间里练习,您将很难听到自己的演奏。如果抬高乐谱架,它将截取声音,您可能根本听不到自己的演奏!

One of the biggest advantages of grand pianos is the use of gravity as the return force of the hammer. In uprights the restoring force for the hammer is supplied by springs. Gravity is always constant and uniform across the entire keyboard whereas non-uniformities in the springs and friction can create non-uniformities in the feel of the keys of an upright. Uniformity of feel is one of the most important properties of well-regulated, quality pianos, because it is impossible to play PP if the feel is not uniform. 三角钢琴的最大优点之一是利用重力作为锤子的返回力。在立柱中,锤子的复位力由弹簧提供。重力在整个键盘上始终是恒定且均匀的,而弹簧中的不均匀性和摩擦力会在直立式琴键的感觉上造成不均匀性。感觉的均匀性是良好调节的高质量钢琴的最重要属性之一,因为如果感觉不均匀,则无法演奏PP。

Many students who practice on uprights or digitals are intimidated by the appearance of huge grands at recitals and competitions, but these grands are easier to play than uprights. One fear that these students have concerning these grands is that their actions may be heavier. However, touch weight is something that is adjusted by the technician regulating the piano and can be adjusted to any number regardless of whether the piano is an upright or a grand. 许多在立柱或数字上练习的学生都对大型演奏会在演奏会和比赛中的出现感到害怕,但是这些演奏会比立柱演奏起来容易。这些学生对这些大人物的恐惧是他们的行为可能会更重。但是,触摸重量是由技术人员调节钢琴来调节的,无论钢琴是立式钢琴还是三角钢琴,都可以将其调节为任意数量。

Advanced students will of course find it easier to play demanding pieces on grands than uprights, mainly because of the faster action and uniformity. Good grands can save you a lot of time when acquiring advanced skills. The main reason for this is that it is easy to develop bad habits when struggling with difficult material on uprights. Challenging material can be more difficult on electronic pianos (and impossible on models without proper touch weight) because they are less forgiving of minor unintended motions of the fingers. Some advanced pianists purposely practice on electronics for this reason, because you need better technique to play on less forgiving pianos. 当然,高年级的学生会发现,比起立柱,在三角钢琴上演奏要求苛刻的乐曲要容易得多,这主要是因为动作和均匀性更快。优秀的大牌手可以在获取高级技能时节省大量时间。这样做的主要原因是当在立柱上用困难的材料挣扎时容易养成不良习惯。具有挑战性的材料在电钢琴上可能会更困难(在没有适当触摸重量的型号上则很难实现),因为它们对手指的轻微意外动作的承受力较小。出于这个原因,一些高级钢琴家特意练习电子学,因为您需要更好的技术来演奏较少宽容的钢琴。

Some people with small rooms agonize over whether a large grand would be too loud in such a space. Loudness is usually not the most important issue, and you always have the option of closing the lid to different degrees. The maximum loudness of the medium and large grands is not that different, and you can play softer with the larger grands. It is the multiple sound reflections that are most bothersome. Multiple reflections can be easily eliminated by a carpet on the floor and sound insulation on one or two walls. There is no need to insulate all walls because you just need to prevent multiple reflections so that even just one wall can make a big difference. If the piano fits into a room, then it is usually acceptable from the sound point of view. 一些拥有小房间的人会为大型盛装在这样的空间中是否太大声而苦恼。响度通常不是最重要的问题,并且您始终可以选择不同程度地关闭盖子。中大型三角钢琴的最大响度没有什么不同,您可以在大型三角钢琴上演奏更柔和的声音。最令人讨厌的是多重声音反射。地板上的地毯和一两个墙壁上的隔音效果可以轻松消除多重反射。无需将所有墙壁都隔热,因为您只需要防止多次反射即可,即使只有一面墙壁也可以起到很大作用。如果钢琴适合放在房间里,那么从声音的角度来看通常是可以接受的。