4.弯指和直指手型、弯曲麻痹

(4) Curled and Flat Finger Positions, Curl Paralysis

The curled position has been defined in the literature as the "relaxed" natural position of the fingers when you hang the hands down your sides. This works for pianists who have been playing for years, but how a two-year-old, or a golfer, or swimmer, who had never played piano, would hang the hands can be any position. To properly define the curled position, place both hands on a tabletop, about a foot apart, palm side down. Form domes with the hand and fingers as if you are holding softballs, with finger tips touching the table. The right and left thumb nails should point towards the left and right shoulders, respectively. This is the starting position for the fingers and is called the curled position because the fingers are curled over the imaginary ball. 在文献中,弯指手型被定义为当您将手垂向两侧时手指的“松弛”自然位置。 这对于已经弹了多年的钢琴家很有效,但是从未弹过钢琴的两岁小孩,高尔夫球手或游泳者这样做的位置却是任意的。 要正确定义卷曲位置,请将两只手放在桌面上,彼此分开一英尺(译者注:约30厘米),手掌朝下。 用手和手指像握住垒球一样形成圆顶,用指尖触摸桌子。 右边和左边的拇指指甲应分别指向左、右肩膀。 这是手指的起始手型,称为弯指手型,因为手指在虚拟的球上卷曲。

The advantages of the curled position are that it: provides firm control of each finger, facilitates playing between black keys, and aligns the fingers close to a straight line so that all keys are played at about the same distance from their pivots [balance rail, see (80) Grand Piano Action Diagram]. Those with long fingers find it necessary to curl fingers 2-4 more in order to play the thumb. The disadvantages are: (1) you play with the fingertips that are easy to injure and do not provide sufficient padding for better control of touch or playing FFF and PPP; two types of finger tip injuries can occur with the curled position, see (60) Injury, Health, (2) the downstroke requires precise control of complex sets of muscles, (3) it is easy to miss black keys because the finger tip area is small, and (4) it suffers from curl paralysis. 弯指手型的优点在于:可以牢牢控制每个手指,方便黑键间的弹奏,并使手指对齐直线附近,从而使所有琴键在距其枢轴大约相同距离处弹奏[ balance rail, 参见(80)大钢琴动作图]。 那些长手指的人发现有必要进一步卷曲2-4指才能用拇指弹琴。 缺点是:(1)弹指时容易受伤,并且无法提供足够的填充以更好地控制触摸或弹奏FFF和PPP(译者注:FFF和PPP应该是力度记号,如果有错请指教); 弯指手型可能会导致两种类型的指尖受伤,请参阅[(60)伤害,健康];(2)下击需要精确控制复杂的肌肉;(3)因为指尖区域较小,容易错过黑键,并且(4)得弯曲麻痹

To demonstrate curl paralysis, stretch any finger (except the thumb) straight out and wiggle it up and down as if depressing a piano key. Then gradually curl the finger, keeping the same wiggle motion as before. Note that the maximum wiggle decreases with increasing curl: paralysis increases with curl. 要证明卷曲麻痹,请伸直任何手指(拇指除外),然后上下摆动,就像按下钢琴键一样。 然后逐渐卷曲手指,保持与以前相同的摆动动作。 请注意,最大摆动随着卷曲的增加而减少:麻痹随着卷曲的增加而增加。

One unusual position is the "collapsed" position in which the last phalange (nail phalange) is bent outwards, instead of the "normal" straight or slightly curled. There is no evidence that this position is harmful, and it has the advantage of playing more with the front pad of the finger. Furthermore, the muscle to this phalange can be relaxed because tendons naturally limit the outward motion, thus simplifying finger motions and increasing Relaxation. Although some teachers abhor this position because it looks unnatural, there is no known reason why it is bad and has advantages. Trying to "correct" this position can create terrible problems. 一个不寻常的位置是“折叠”手型,其中最后一个指骨(指甲指骨)向外弯曲,而不是“正常”的笔直或略微卷曲。 没有证据表明该位置有害,并且具有更多用手指的前指板演奏的优势。 此外,由于腱自然地限制了向外运动,因此可以使指骨的肌肉放松,从而简化了手指运动并增加了放松感。 尽管有些老师因为看起来很不自然而讨厌这种手型,但没有已知的理由说明它不好并且这样有优势。 试图“纠正”这个位置会造成严重的问题。

The curled position must be taught, especially to beginners, but there are many other positions that must be studied. Each pianist has his own natural position so that forcing every student to adopt a single "standard" curled position is a common mistake of older teaching methods that can significantly slow down a student's progress. 必须教给卷曲的姿势,尤其是对于初学者,但是还有许多其他姿势需要研究。 每个钢琴家都有自己的自然位置,因此强迫每个学生采用单一的“标准”弯指手型是较旧的教学方法的常见错误,它会大大减慢学生的学习进度。

When both black and white keys are played, the black keys should be played with less curl because they are higher. We shall call the family of non-curl positions the Flat Finger Positions (FFP) - see Prokop, P.13-15 for FFP photos. 同时演奏黑键和白键时,黑键应该用较小的卷曲度弹,因为它们的位置较高。 我们将非卷曲位置系列称为直指手型(FFP)——有关FFP照片,请参阅Prokop,第13-15页。

(1) The most extreme FFP is the straight flat position: all fingers are stretched straight out. It is the way V. Horowitz played and has the advantages that: the keys are played with the front pads of the fingers which reduces the probability of injuries from long practice sessions, and the keystroke motion is the simplest of all positions, requiring use of the smallest number of muscles. This facilitates relaxation. The finger contact areas with the keys are maximized, reducing the probability of missed notes, and you can feel the keys with the most sensitive front pads of the fingers. The sensitivity gives more tone control whereas, with the curled position, you are restricted to one tone which tends to be harsher. Because it is simpler, and does not suffer curl paralysis, you can play faster; however, the fastest position is one in which you play the black keys FFP and the white keys curled because this places every finger closest to its key. FFP increases the reach and reduces interference from the fingernails. (1)最极端的FFP是完全的直指手型:所有手指都伸直。这是V.Horowitz演奏的方式,其优点是:用手指的前垫弹奏琴键可减少长时间练习受伤的可能性,并且击键动作是所有位置中最简单的,因此需要使用最少的肌肉。这有利于放松。手指与按键的接触面积最大,减少了遗漏音符的可能性,您可以用最敏感的手指前垫感觉按键。灵敏度提供了更多的音调控制,而在弯指手型上,您只能使用一种音调,这种音调会变得更加刺耳。因为它更简单,并且不会出现卷曲麻痹,所以您可以弹得更快;但是,最快的位置是您演奏黑色键FFP而白色键卷曲的位置,因为这会使每个手指最靠近其键。 FFP可以扩大覆盖范围并减少指甲的干扰。

Proponents of the curled position argue that it is the strongest position because of the arch shape; this is false because athletes who do hand stands use the front pads, not the fingertips; thus the FFP is the stronger position. 弯指手型支持者认为,由于弓的形状,它是最有力的手型。这是错误的,因为用手倒立的运动员使用的是手的前垫,而不是指尖。因此,FFP的手型更有力。

Nomenclature: Phalange (also called phalanx; plural is always phalanges) is the name for the finger bones beyond the knuckle; they are numbered 1-3 (thumb has only 1 and 3), and the 3rd phalange is the "nail phalange" (see Prokop, P. 101). 术语:指骨(phalanx,也称为phalanx;复数都是phalanges)是指关节指骨以外的手指骨头的名称。 它们的编号为1-3(拇指只有1和3),第三个指骨是“指甲指骨”(请参阅Prokop,第101页)。

With FFP, the tendons under the finger bones hold the fingers straight when playing. Unlike the curled position, no effort is needed to keep the fingers straight because tendons limit the amount of backwards bending. There are pianists whose nail phalange naturally bends backwards (collapsed position). There is nothing wrong with this and it does not interfere with FFPs. Learn to use these tendons to help with relaxation. The nail phalange should always be relaxed. The relaxed 3rd phalange also acts as a shock absorber. When playing fortissimo with curled fingers, both the extensor and flexor muscles must be controlled in order to hold the curled position. In FFP, the extensors are relaxed and only the flexors are needed, reducing stress and simplifying the motion. Thus the curled position is complex and requires a good fraction of a lifetime to learn properly, whereas the FFP is more natural. That is why self taught pianists tend to use more FFP. 使用FFP时,手指骨头下的肌腱在演奏时可以使手指保持笔直。 与弯指手型不同,不需要任何努力来保持手指伸直,因为腱限制了向后弯曲的量。 有些钢琴家的指甲指骨自然会向后弯曲(折叠手型)。 这没有什么错,并且不会干扰FFP。 学习使用这些肌腱来帮助放松。 指甲指骨应始终放松。 松弛的第3指骨也用作减震器。 用弯曲的手指弹极强时,必须控制伸肌和屈肌,以保持弯指手型。 在FFP中,伸肌放松,只需要屈肌,可以减轻压力并简化运动。 因此,弯指手型很复杂,需要相当长的时间才能正确学习,而FFP更自然。 这就是为什么自学钢琴家倾向于使用更多FFP的原因。

The best way to practice FFP is to play the B major scale, in which fingers 2,3,4 play the black keys and 1,5 play the white for both hands. Since 1 & 5 should not generally play the black keys in runs (a fingering rule), this is exactly what you want for practicing FFP. 练习FFP的最佳方法是弹奏B大调,双手的手指2,3,4弹奏黑色键,而1,5的手指弹奏白色。 由于1和5通常不应在跑动中弹奏黑键(指法规则),因此这正是练习FFP所需要的。

Play FFP with the palm of the hand almost touching the keys. This increases accuracy because you know exactly where the keys are. FFP legato is easier and different from legato using the curled position because the curled position produces a harsher tone. It is easier to play two notes with one finger FFP because the finger can be turned at an angle to the keys so that the large area under the finger can play two keys. Because Chopin was known for his legato, was good at playing several notes with one finger, and recommended practicing the B major scale, he probably used FFP. Combe taught FFP and noted that it was particularly useful for playing Chopin. One legato trick she taught was to start with FFP and then curl the finger so that the hand can move from white to black keys without lifting the finger off the key. Parts of the Bach Inventions are good for practicing FFPs, suggesting that he composed them with both FFP and curl in mind. 用手掌几乎触摸琴键的情况下演奏FFP。 因为您确切知道键的位置,所以可以提高准确性。 FFP连奏更容易,并且与使用弯指手型的连奏不同,因为弯指手型会产生较刺耳的音调。 用一个手指FFP演奏两个音符会更容易,因为手指可以与琴键成一定角度旋转,从而手指下方的较大区域可以演奏两个琴键。 因为肖邦以连奏闻名,擅长用一根手指弹奏几个音符,并建议练习B大调,所以他可能使用了FFP。 Combe教过FFP,并指出这对演奏肖邦特别有用。 她教的一种连奏技巧是从FFP开始,然后卷曲手指,以便手可以从白色键移到黑色键,而无需将手指从键上移开。 巴赫创意曲的某些部分非常适合练习FFP,这表明他在作曲时兼顾FFP和弯指手型。

The freedom to play with any amount of curl is a necessary technique. One disadvantage of the curled position is that the extensor muscles are not sufficiently exercised, causing the flexor muscles to strengthen and even overpower the extensors. In FFP, the unused flexor muscles are relaxed; in fact, the associated tendons are stretched, which makes the fingers more flexible. There are numerous accounts of the extraordinary flexibility of Liszt's fingers. Liszt used FFP to improve tone (Boissier, Fay, Bertrand). Because of the tradition of teaching mostly the curled position, many older concert pianists under-use the FFPs and had to work unnecessarily hard to acquire technique. 能自由地以任意弯曲度演奏是一项必要的技术。 弯指手型的一个缺点是伸肌不能充分运动,导致屈肌加强甚至使伸肌过大。 在FFP中,未使用的屈肌被放松; 实际上,相关的肌腱被拉伸了,这使手指更加柔软。 关于李斯特手指的非凡灵活性,有许多说法。 李斯特使用FFP改善音调(Boissier,Fay和Bertrand)。 由于大多数教学都是在弯曲的手型上的,因此许多年长的钢琴演奏家都过少使用FFP,因此他们只能下没必要的苦功来习得技术。

(2) Another FFP is the pyramid position in which all the fingers are straight, but are bent down at the knuckles. This has the advantage that the downstroke action is simpler than for the curled position. Some pianists feel naturally relaxed with this position. If you are not naturally comfortable with this position, there is no need to learn it. (2)另一个FFP是金字塔形手型,其中所有手指都笔直,但在指关节处向下弯曲。 这样做的优点是,向下行程的动作比弯曲位置的动作简单。 一些钢琴家对这个姿势感到自然放松。 如果您不自然地适合这个手型,则无需学习。

(3) The spider position is similar to the pyramid, except that the bend occurs mostly at the first joint after the knuckle. As with the pyramid position, the main reason for using this position is that it is a natural position for that pianist. Many pianists are unable to use this position, so don't be concerned if you can not. Of all the FFPs, the spider position may be the most versatile. The insect kingdom adopted this position after hundreds of millions of years of evolution. (3)蜘蛛手型类似于金字塔,除了弯曲主要发生在指关节之后的第一个关节处。 与金字塔位置一样,使用此位置的主要原因是这是钢琴演奏者的自然位置。 许多钢琴家无法使用此位置,因此请不要担心。 在所有FFP中,蜘蛛手型可能是用途最广的。 昆虫王国经过数亿年的进化,才采用了这一个形状。

Chopin's legato is documented to be particularly special, as was his staccato. Is his staccato related to the FFP? Note that all the FFPs take advantage of the spring effect of the relaxed third phalange, which might be useful in playing staccato. 肖邦的连奏和他的断奏被证明是特别特别的。 他的断奏与FFP有关吗? 请注意,所有FFP都利用了松弛的第三指骨的弹力效果,这在演奏断音时可能很有用。

It is easier to play FFP when the bench is lowered. There are numerous accounts of pianists discovering that they can play better with a lower bench height (Horowitz and Glenn Gould). They claim to get better control, especially for pianissimo and speed. 降低长凳时,演奏FFP更容易。 有许多关于钢琴演奏家的发现,他们发现他们可以在较低的板凳高度下发挥更好的演奏能力(Horowitz和Glenn Gould)。 他们声称得到了更好的控制,尤其是对于钢琴演奏和速度。

Don't worry if you can't use all these positions. Use those that are comfortable, natural positions for you. The purpose of these discussions is to caution teachers against forcing every student to use one idealized curled position because that can create problems. Each hand is different and each position has advantages and disadvantages that depend more on the person than on the position. 如果您不能使用所有这些手型,请不要担心。 使用那些对您来说舒适自然的手型吧。 这些讨论的目的是警告教师不要强迫每个学生使用一个理想的弯指手型,因为这可能会造成问题。 每只手都是不同的,每个位置都有优点和缺点,而这些优点和缺点更多地取决于人而不是手型。

In summary, Horowitz had good reasons to play with flat fingers and the above discussions suggest that part of his higher technical level may have been achieved by using more FFPs than others, and sitting low. Although the curled position is necessary, the statement "you need the curled position to play technically difficult material" is misleading – what we need is flexible fingers. Playing with FFPs liberates us to use many useful and versatile finger positions. We now know how to play all those black keys, especially arpeggios, and not miss a single note. Thank you, Johann, Frederic, Franz, Vladimir, Yvonne (Combe)! 总而言之,Horowitz有充分的理由用直指手型,并且以上讨论表明,他的较高技术水平的部分原因可能是通过使用比其他人更多的FFP,并且坐得很低。 尽管需要弯指手型,但“需要弯指手型才能演奏技术上困难的材料”这样的说法具有误导性——我们需要的是柔软的手指。 使用FFP可以解放我们使用许多有用且通用的手型。 现在,我们知道如何演奏所有这些黑键,尤其是琶音,并且不会遗漏单个音符。 谢谢Johann, Frederic, Franz, Vladimir, Yvonne (Combe)!