5.读谱和指法

(5) Reading, Fingering

Beginners who know nothing about reading, fingering, or how to start learning piano, should use the Beginner books, where they can find the beginner information including fingerings (Beyer does not tell you that thumb is finger #1 and pinky is #5!). Here are the fingerings for scales and arpeggios: (29) Scales: Nomenclature and Fingerings; they should be practiced until they become automatic habits. Thumb is rarely asked to play the black keys because that places the other fingers too close to the fallboard. 对于读谱、指法或如何开始学习钢琴一无所知的初学者,应使用初学者书籍(译者注:见索引:Beginner books),在其中可以找到包括指法在内的初学者信息(Beyer不会告诉您拇指是手指#1,小指是#5!) 。 以下是音阶和琶音的指法:[(29)音阶:命名法和指法]; 应当练习音阶和琶音,直到养成自动的习惯。 很少有人要求用拇指弹黑键,因为这会使其他手指过于靠近钢琴盖板。

Learning reading is always a struggle initially for beginners. Teachers should not help them by showing them the keys; let them struggle to find the keys because everybody must go through this stage. Start with easy material, making sure that the student has learned each material well before proceeding to the next. During the reading lesson, make sure that the student is actually reading and has not memorized the keys, by assigning new material; instruct the parents not to help them also while practicing at home. 对于初学者而言,学习读谱始终是一项艰巨的任务。 教师不应通过向他们展示琴键的位置来帮助他们。 让他们努力寻找键位,因为每个人都必须经历这个阶段。 从简单的材料开始,确保在继续学习下一个材料之前,学生已经很好地学习了每个材料。 在读谱课上,通过分配新材料来确保学生正在读谱并且没有记住键位。指示父母, 学生在家中练习时父母也不要帮助他们。

The time signature at the beginning of each composition looks like a fraction, consisting of a numerator and a denominator. The numerator indicates the number of beats per measure (bar) and the denominator indicates the note per beat. For example, 3/4 means there are three beats per measure and each beat is a quarter note. Knowing the time signature is critical when accompanying or playing in a group because the moment that the accompanist starts is determined by the starting beat which the conductor indicates with the baton. This beat is indicated in the sheet music — it is frequently not the first beat of a measure! The key signature indicates the key in which the music is written and appears before the time signature. It indicates the locations of the sharps and flats. 每个作品开头的拍号看起来像一个分数,由分子和分母组成。 分子表示每小节拍数(小节),分母表示每拍子的音符。 例如,3/4表示每个小节有3个节拍,每个节拍是一个四分音符。 当伴奏或在组内演奏时,了解拍号至关重要,因为伴奏者开始的时刻取决于指挥人员用指挥棒指示的开始拍子。 五线谱中指示了此拍子——通常不是小节的第一拍! 调号表示作曲时用的调,出现在拍号之前。 它指示了升号和降号。

Do not take extended reading lessons just to learn all the music notations because you won't remember them months later when you need them. Learn to read music notations as they are encountered in new compositions you learn, or when practicing scales and arpeggios. Teachers must balance the students' abilities to read and to memorize, which is treated in (14)Memorizing, Close Your Eyes and Play. The most important rule for fingering is that, for the same or similar passages, always use the same fingering. Changing the fingering after you have partially learned a section is a major decision because getting rid of old habits and establishing new ones takes a lot of work. During a performance, the old habits can suddenly pop up and result in a flub. 不要仅仅为了学习所有的音乐符号而参加额外的读谱课程,因为几个月后,当您需要它们时,您将不会记住它们。 在您学习的新乐曲中或练习音阶和琶音时,要学会阅读音乐符号。 教师必须平衡学生的阅读和记忆能力,这在(14)“记忆,闭上眼睛和弹奏”中进行了论述。 指法最重要的规则是,对于相同或相似的段落,始终使用相同的指法。 在部分学习了一部分内容之后更改指法是一个重大决定,因为要摆脱旧习惯并建立新习惯需要大量工作。 在表演过程中,旧习惯可能突然冒出来,并导致错误。

The standard fingerings are generally not indicated in the sheet music and they do not always work depending on what comes before and after, in which case you need non-standard fingerings; these are generally indicated in most sheet music. Although some indicated fingerings may seem awkward at first, you will find that they are needed when you get up to speed and play hands together. 五线谱中通常没有标明标准指法,并且标准指法不一定总是有用,这得根据前后的情况而起作用,在这种情况下,您需要非标准指法。 这些通常在大多数乐谱中都有体现。 尽管起初有些标明的指法有些难处理,但当您加快速度和合手演奏时,您会发现它们是必需的。

For the Für Elise, look for editions that have the non-standard fingerings indicated. Bar 52 (31 short version) RH, can be played 2321231 where the 3212 is the turn, or 3432131. 对于Für Elise,请查找具有所示非标准指法的版本。 第52小节(短版为31)的右手可以在2321231(3212是回音)或3432131上演奏。