2.凳高、距离和姿势

(2) Bench Height, Distance from Piano, Posture

The bench height should be set so that the elbows are slightly below the level of the keys when the upper arms are hanging straight down with the hands on the keyboard in playing position. Sit on the front half of the bench, not in the center, and at a distance from the piano such that the body does not interfere with the elbows when they move towards each other in front of the chest. For beginners, benches with fixed height will not be problematic because they can adapt to a range of heights. 凳子的高度应该设置在上臂笔直向下悬垂的时候,且键盘上的手处于演奏位置,并且肘部略低于键盘的高度。坐在长凳的前半部分,而不是在中央,并且与钢琴保持一定距离,这样当肘部在胸部前部彼此相对移动时,身体不会干扰肘部。对于初学者来说,固定高度的长凳不会有问题,因为初学者可以适应一定范围的凳子高度。

Low bench height has the advantage that it makes it easier to lift the fingers, especially the 4th, and it may allow a straighter wrist, thus reducing the chances of contracting carpal tunnel syndrome. The shoulders will be closer to the keys, providing a wider reach and the head will be closer to the keys, providing a more intimate feel of the keys. It also makes it easier to sit with a straight spine and to sit farther away from the piano, which provides more elbow space. Sitting lower is more compatible with many techniques such as (21) Forearm Rotation, using the Power Thumb [(31) Thumb, Most Versatile Finger, Power Thumb] or the flat finger positions [(4) Curled and Flat Finger Positions, Curl Paralysis], etc. It also allows the use of forearm rotation to rotate the wrist rapidly. 低板凳高度的优点是可以更容易地抬起手指,尤其是第四只指,并且可以使手腕伸直,从而减少患上腕管综合症(译者注:一种常见的周围神经卡压性疾患,表现为手指和靠近拇指的手掌出现刺痛和麻木感)的机会。肩膀将更靠近琴键,从而提供更大的触及范围,而头部将更靠近琴键,从而为琴键提供更亲密的感觉。它也使坐直的脊椎和远离钢琴的坐姿更加容易,从而提供了更大的肘部空间。坐得更低更适合许多技术,例如使用Power Thumb [(21)前臂旋转]、(31)Thumb, Most Versatile Finger, Power Thumb]或直指位置[(4)Curled and Flat Finger Positions, Curl Paralysis)等。它还允许使用前臂旋转来快速旋转手腕。

Posture is important: a high position can cause the players to hunch their backs, so that a conscious effort must be made to sit straight up. Massage therapists know that a crooked spine, head leaning forward, can cause long-term problems from stress. 姿势很重要:较高的姿势可能会导致演奏者弯腰,因此必须有意识地努力坐直。 按摩治疗师知道,弯曲的脊椎(头部朝前)会因压力而引起长期问题。 The high position makes it easier to lean forward and exert downward pressure with the shoulders for loud passages. It may also make it easier to prevent "hand collapse" (HC), which is a controversial subject because the different types of HC have not been clearly defined, although HC is prominently discussed in several books. 较高的位置使其更易于向前倾斜,并向肩膀施加向下的压力来弹奏声音大的段落。它也可能使预防“手倒塌”(HC)的工作变得更加容易,HC是一个有争议的主题,因为尽管在几本书中都对HC进行了详细讨论,但尚未明确定义不同类型的HC。

Whatever advantages/disadvantages there are to different bench heights, they can be compensated by an adjustment in wrist position. In addition, each person has different ratios of the lengths of the spine, upper arm , etc., so that bench height alone does not determine the optimum position. 无论不同的工作台高度有什么优点/缺点,都可以通过调整手腕位置来弥补。另外,每个人的脊柱,上臂等的长度比例不同,因此,仅靠板凳的高度并不能确定最佳位置。

Bench height becomes important for advanced pianists; thus the best time to test for optimum height is at the advanced level. More factors favor the lower position, so that the optimum position is probably one with the elbow one to two inches below the keyboard. This will make most commercial non-adjustable benches too high by several inches. Adjustable benches are highly recommended. 板凳高度对于高级钢琴家来说很重要。因此,测试最佳高度的最佳时间是演奏水平在高级的时候。更多的因素还是倾向于较低的位置,因此最佳位置可能是肘部在键盘下方一到两英寸的位置。这将使大多数商用的不可调节工作台高出几英寸。强烈建议使用可调式长凳。

A majority of teachers and books recommend sitting with the elbow at the level of the keys and a few, especially the older ones, recommend higher positions. Many concert pianists sit high, probably because they had teachers who preferred the high position, and became accustomed to it. The lower position is recommended here because it has more advantages. 大部分的老师和书本建议将肘部放在键的水平位置,少数教师和书本建议将其放在较高的位置,尤其是老年人。许多音乐会钢琴家坐得很高,可能是因为他们有喜欢高位并习惯了高位的老师。在此建议使用较低的位置,因为它具有更多优点。